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  • #37468

    admin
    Keymaster

    After a little Googling I have found that virtually the whole story of the resveratrol and its effects is in the Wikipedia (though it is not all in the same place!)

     

    In the 1950s Denham Harman proposed the theory that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the major cause of aging (the "Free Radical Theory of Aging"). Later studies have shown that oxidative stress might be a major determinant of lifespan – in fruit flies at least – (Muller et al, 2007) and studies with mice show that it might play a major role age-related diseases (especially cancer).

    In the nineties scientists at the University of California Berkeley  (Shigenaga et al, 1994) found evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction due to oxidative damage plays a critical role the aging process. Several key mitochondrial functions have been found to decline with age and this age-associated damage appears to play a major contributor to cellular, tissue and general "organismal" aging.

    This later version of the "Free Radical Theory of Aging" is based on the idea that reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause damage to mitochondrial components and initiate toxic reactions that cause many aspects of the aging process (Cadenas al, 2000).

    This theory has motivated a lot of people to take antioxidants. Unfortunately a diet rich in antioxidants might not be able to counteract damage due to free radicals. Dietary intakes of antioxidants (and dietary supplements of vitamins E, C and beta-carotene) appear to be a two-edged sword because paradoxically though they might protect people with high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) against cancer and aging, they might suppress natural protective mechanisms in people who have low levels of ROS. In any case small molecule antioxidants appear to play a very minor role in comparison to the activities of the body’s own antioxidant enzymes.

    One of the most dangerous oxides (superoxide) is produced in our own mitochondria (the organelles that act as power houses of the cell). Fortunately cells are normally able to defend themselves against ROS damage through the use of enzymes such as "Super-Oxide Dismutases" (SODs) and catalases. The SOD that protects mitochondria from excessive levels of superoxide is a tetrameric form of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSod). This enyme breaks superoxide down and releases hydrogen peroxide. Catalase (which is found everywhere in the cell but chiefly in the peroxisomes) then reacts with the hydrogen peroxide and forms water and oxygen.

     

    In 1995 a team of scientists at University of California (San Francisco) found that mice lacking the mitochondrial Manganese SOD enzyme (i.e. SOD2) die several days after birth due to massive oxidative stress (Li, et al., 1995). Research with rats has shown that the loss of fully-functional antioxidant defence mechanisms appear to be associated with the aging of the brain (Tsay et al, 2000).

     

    Luckily it has since been found that resveratrol (the anti-ageing ingredient found in red wines of the Lambrusco type) stimulates the production of MnSOD. Recent research suggests that its effects include extension of lifespan, the inhibition of cancer and increased resistance to irradiation damage (Sun et al, 2002). 

    Could this be the future for radiation protection?

     

    Regards,

     

    David McFarlane MAppSc (Ergonomics)

    Ergonomist, WorkCover NSW

     

    References

     

    1. Muller, F, Lustgarten, M, Jang, Y, Richardson, A. and Van Remmen, H, (2007), "Trends in oxidative aging theories", Free Radic. Biol. Med, 43, 477-503. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_oxygen_species

     

    2. M K Shigenaga, T M Hagen, and B N Ames, (1994),  "Oxidative damage and mitochondrial decay in aging", Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 November 8; 91(23): 10771–10778.

    3. Cadenas E and Davies K, (2000), "Mitochondrial free radical generation, oxidative stress, and aging" Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 29, Issues 3-4, August 2000, Pages 222-230.

     

    4. R Salganik,  (2001), "The Benefits and Hazards of Antioxidants: Controlling Apoptosis and Other Protective Mechanisms in Cancer Patients and the Human Population", Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 20, No. 90005, 464S-472S.

     

    5. Li, et al., Y. (1995). "Dilated cardiomyopathy and neonatal lethality in mutant mice lacking manganese superoxide dismutase.". Nat. Genet. 11: 376-381. 

    6. H Tsay, P Wang, S Wang and H Ku, (2000), "Age-Associated Changes of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Activities in the Rat Brain", Journal of Biomedical Science, Vol. 7, No. 6, pp 466-474.  See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superoxide_dismutase


    7.
    J. Sun, D. Folk, T.J. Bradley, J. Tower, (2002), "Induced overexpression of mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutase extends the life span of adult Drosophila melanogaster", Genetics, 161, pp 661–672.

    http://209.85.173.104/search?q=cache:jVkiSIfOG0kJ:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resveratrol+dismutase+resveratrol&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=6&gl=au&lr=lang_en

     

    Disclaimer

     

    Any recommendation concerning the use or representation of a particular brand of product in this document or any mention of them whatsoever (whether this appears in the text, illustrations, photographs or in any other form) is not to be taken to imply that WorkCover NSW approves or endorses the product or the brand.

    #38799

    [private user]
    Participant

    Dave,
    Just saw this (been away) and wanted to thank you for posting it (even though it’s not remotely related to ergonomics).

    Just a quick note on resveretrol: it’s also in grape juice…..

    JeffDr. Jeffrey Anshel

    Optometrist

    Corporate Vision Consulting

    #38803

    admin
    Keymaster

    Jeff,

     

    I stand admonishing! In my defence I might point out (for those who have forgotten or never knew) that in the nineteen eighties when ergonomics first became well-known to the general public thanks to the RSI epidemic in Australia (when to many of us who are still active in the field first trained in ergonomics) the initial presentations on the role of ergonomics used to quote an “Onion-skin” model of ergonomics model of ergonomics where the outer layers were the social dimension of work, private life and public health. But hey what’s wrong with brain-storming anyway? It’s so hard to start a discussion (‘silence like a cancer grows …" or provoke a response these days ("you know it aint easy …").

     

    One of the earliest versions of this model of ergonomics appears to have been the one published in the publication “Ergonomics in the Electronic Retail Environment“(Grey, Norris and Wilson, 1987). This approach was in line with the relevant management their theories of the day; these often stressed the need to empower all stakeholders by changing expectations (Osborne and Gaebler, 1992). I suggest that we also need to change (and raise) the expectations of the change managers themselves even if they regard themselves as being merely small picture ergonomists.

     

    In New South Wales the original participatory approach to promoting health and safety in the workplace (NSW Health Department, 1992) stressed the need to raise awareness about the solutions to both health and safety problems. We seem to have forgotten about health.

     

    The best-known reference for the so-called “Onion skin” model of ergonomics is probably the one in “Evaluation of Human Work” (Wilson and Corlett, 1995) as Figure 1.2 on page 10 of that textbook. The onionskin model of ergonomics shows the following layers (proceeding from the inside to the outside) people, tasks, equipment and machines, personal workspace, the wider workspace, physical environment and work organization and job design.  This description of ergonomics contained a vector diagram (figure 1.3 on page 11) that shows the inter-relationships between the following factors;

    • The well-being of the employees,
    • The well-being of the organization,
    • Health, safety, comfort, satisfaction
    • Productivity and quality

     

    However the layer of the onion called "well-being of the employees" has been largely neglected. Unfortunately many of the most successful ergonomic interventions in the nineties such as "Participatory ergonomic interventions in meatpacking plants" (NIOSH, 1994) programs tended to focus mainly on the physical and physiological aspects on reducing musculo-skeletal injuries. Even when they focussed on a general participatory approach to OHS they rarely followed the NSW Health concept of general health promotion.

     

    In view of the “Social” factor and the “well-being of the employees” health promotion programs should pay more attention to the inner layers of the onion given the increasing awareness of the need for stress management for risk control. It should also be possible to increase motivation of employers by referring to both wellbeing and productivity.

     

    I believe that in relation to the outer layers we need to stress the usefulness of preventive medicine and improving life-style factors (nutrition, physical exercise, mental activity, habits, social activity, mental health et cetera) for the wellbeing of the workers. I feel that to date when these social/wellness factors have been included in ergonomics programs they have not been adequately stressed. It would be helpful if ergonomic programs covered general health promotion and lifestyle issues as well more prosaic issues such as furniture design.

     

    I see strong evidence everywhere that the problems of older workers (and the Baby Boomers and older carers in particular) are not being adequately addressed despite all the political posturing, rhetoric and motherhood statements we hear all around the place these days. In recent years I have done a few investigations of the problems of older workers that would probably cause a media sensation if they became publicised (though due to confidentiality considerations I cannot publicise them of course).

     

    It seems to me that even if the plight of older workers doing manual handling became better known we will not help them much if we persist in having a narrow and blinkered silo mentality. As Rani Lueder once put it (" Humanics", on Ergoweb on 3 September 2004) often if the simple and easy solutions do not work at one level you have to keep looking at the next layer of the onion before you get anywhere.

    See  https://ergoweb.com/forum/index.cfm?page=topic&topicID=259

    Am I the only one who feels this way?]

     

    Last night I went to book launch for a book titled "Safety, Security, Health and Environment Law" (by Michael Tooma). The guest speaker (a cabinet minister no less) remarked that the integrative approaches are the most ground breaking and they are best exemplified by progressive authors with incisive minds (such as Michael Tooma). Hence I feel justified in thinking that an "integrative approach" is the spirit of the times and the best way to stay "in the zone". Ergonomics used to be all about multi-disciplinary networking and breaking down barriers. Perhaps some of us have forgotten why we went into the swamp!

     

     

    Regards,

     

    David McFarlane MAppSc (Ergonomics)

    Ergonomist, WorkCover NSW

     

     References

     

    1. S. Grey, B. Norris and J. Wilson, (1987),  “Ergonomics in the Electronic Retail Environment“, (ICI (UK) Ltd, Slough, UK).

     

    2. D. Osborne and T. Gaebler, (1992), "Reinventing Government", (Addison-

    Wesley Publishing Co, New York), pages 65 and 70.

     

    3. NSW Health Department, (1992), "Promoting health and safety in the workplace", ISBN 0 7305 3488 X, pages 14-15 and pages 20-21.

     

     

    4. J. Wilson and E. Corlett, (1995), “Evaluation of Human Work”, Edition 2, (Taylor and Francis, London), pages 10 and 11.

     

    5. NIOSH (1994), "Participatory ergonomic interventions in meatpacking plants", edited by C. Gjessing, T. Schoenborn and A. Cohen, (NIOSH; Publication 94-124).

     

    Disclaimer

     

    Any recommendation concerning the use or representation of a particular brand of product in this document or any mention of them whatsoever (whether this appears in the text, illustrations, photographs or in any other form) is not to be taken to imply that WorkCover NSW approves or endorses the product or the brand.

    #38805

    [private user]
    Participant

    huh?

    Dr. Jeffrey Anshel
    Optometrist
    Corporate Vision Consulting

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